S-Q Charts

Figures last updated on July 22, 2020 by Stefan Tabernig.
Please contact us with your new record-efficiency solar cell data at tabernig@amolf.nl.

The figures shown below provide an up-to-date comparison between world-record single junction solar cell efficiencies for different materials and the fundamental Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance efficiency limit.

These plots may be used with attribution to both this website (lmpv.amolf.nl/SQ) and the following article:
Photovoltaic materials – present efficiencies and future challenges
A. Polman, M. Knight, E.G. Garnett, B. Ehrler, and W.C. Sinke, Science 352, 307 (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad4424.

Download all 3 figures with 600 dpi resolution with the button below:

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Efficiencies relative to Shockley-Queisser

SQ-chart 1

Fraction of the Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance limit (black line) achieved by record-efficiency cells, gray lines showing 75% and 50% of the limit.

Optical and electrical fractions

SQ chart 3

The current ratio j = Jsc/ JSQ plotted versus the product of the voltage and fill factor fractions (v x f = FF Voc / FFSQ VSQ) for record-efficiency cells. The lines around some data points correspond to a range of band gaps taken in the S-Q calculations according to uncertainty in the band gap of the record cell.

Current, voltage, and FF

SQ chart 2

Single-junction solar cell parameters are shown as a function of band gap energy according to the Shockley-Queisser limit (solid lines) and experimental values for record-efficiency cells. Panel 1: Short-circuit current Jsc. Panel 2: Open-circuit voltage Voc. The voltage corresponding to the band gap is shown for reference, with the voltage gap Vg–VSQ indicated by the gray shaded region. Panel 3: Fill factor FF = (JmpVmp)/(VocJsc). All data are for standard AM1.5 illumination at 1000 W/m2.

References for record-efficiency cells in the updated figures

Crystalline silicon
Multicrystalline silicon
Amorphous silicon
Nanocrystalline silicon
  • Performance parameters (efficiency 22.0%) (updated October 2019):
    Solar cell efficiency tables (version 54)
    M. A. Green et al., Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 27, 565-575 (2019).
  • Cell fabrication:
    NREL, private communication, 22 May 2019. (according to M. A. Green et al., Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 27, 565-575 (2019))
  • Performance parameters (efficiency 12.25%) (updated April 2020):
    Solar cell efficiency tables (version 55)
    M. A. Green et al., Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 28, 3-15 (2020).
  • Cell fabrication:
    No specifics were stated/found
Antimony Selenosulfide (SbSSe)